The good, the bad and the ugly about ocean iron fertilization
The dangerous green house gases effect the environment of the planet and a drastic change in the overall climate is experienced. The entire ecology is unbalanced. With a rapid rise in climatic changes, pollution being the main cause, scientists and researchers are finding out new ways to eliminate the root cause of pollution that is carbon dioxide. Ocean iron fertilization is one of the various methods of eradicating atmospheric carbon dioxide. In this process, the ocean is intentionally seeded with iron that causes phytoplankton or algae to grow. Late oceanographer, John Martin, found out that iron was the best micronutrient for phytoplankton growth. The algae thus get the iron nutrition from the intentional introduction of the element and these aquatic eukaryotic organisms absorb abundance of carbon dioxide from the air for photosynthesis. The process thereby helps to mitigate a generous share in global warming.
Ocean iron fertilization has number of benefits. When iron particles are released in water they feed the algae, which blooms and absorb the harmful carbon dioxide for carrying out photosynthesis. These tiny pieces of iron then sink in the ocean and lock away the hazardous gas for upcoming years. The estimated cost for implying this process of ocean seeding to cut on the carbon dioxide is much lower than the present cost of other sequestration mechanisms that are used commercially. The addition of iron will also benefit the marine food chain as iron is also required by other aquatic plants for their healthy growth. The process of ocean iron fertilization also known as carbon sinking will also enhance the marine biological productivity.
Can this be better?
Experiments, which were conducted almost two decades ago on the process of ocean iron fertilization, resulted out in certain drawbacks. The carbon from the atmosphere was pulled into the ocean with a less efficiency. But, at this point of time, they want to get back to their research with carefully designed and upgraded technology to come up with positive results. As for now the situation is much different and scientists want to solve the issues related to global warming in every possible way. Since ocean seeding has led to showing about twenty five percent reductions in atmospheric CO2, they want to work over every tentative insight of the process and want a fruitful consequence.
With the process of iron seeding, the plankton growth will be stimulated, which may also mean that algae growth in deep oceans will be enhanced. But, the requirement of phytoplankton bloom is more on the shore than deep inside. The earlier experiments in reference to the iron fertilization hypothesis pointed out that this method may not be an efficient method to trap and store CO2. Colossal ocean area would be required to carry out the process that may be not so practicable. The iron seeding can also stimulate the growth of some algae species that give rise to red tides and other toxic acids in the oceans, disturbing the marine ecosystems.
Can this be avoided?
The other various processes that entail cutting of greenhouse gas emissions do not actually promise to end the emanations of CO2 gas any time soon. Or one can say that the plan to cut out the greenhouse gases will not turn back the present trajectory of green house gases. Iron seeding removes the atmospheric carbon dioxide and reverses the process of global warming while other solutions will only slow the process. It is estimated that around two hundred thousand tons/year of iron will be required to restore the lost algae species and will soak around three giga tons/year of CO2.
The marine ecosystem can be disturbed by iron seeding, as iron will induce a generous growth in all kinds of phytoplankton, also ones belonging to genus Pseudonitzschia that produces toxic levels of domoic acid. This acid causes death in various aquatic animals due to which, an unbalance in the ecology of oceans occurs. Secondly, the iron fertilization will lead to lower the oxygen levels in the deep seas. When the algae will sink deep in the sea the micro-organism will consume the oxygen of the ocean to raven the algae. The oxygen will also be consumed by deep sea animals and therefore the level of oxygen will be deteriorated with large blooms of plankton.
Why are we so critical?
The process of iron feeding certainly has potential to significantly make a change in algae blooms, the aquatic life and perhaps even the environment of the earth. With various low downs of the process, there is a considerable benefit and that is mitigating global warming. We have now realised how oceans can help in cutting down the atmospheric carbon.
With a rise in global warming and a quick need of removal of carbon and other toxic contents from atmosphere, any promising technique, which promises to execute this demand, would seem great. The iron seeding process anticipates the reverse of global warming, but with certain flaws. Research is being done on the ocean iron fertilization process and scientists may figure out methods to overcome these disadvantages in the coming time.